Assyria usually refers to a region near the upper part of the Tigris river. It would eventually refer to the Empire of Assyria, which at its peak contained the northern half of Mesopotamia.
The notable inventions of the Assyrians included excavations, which were used to undermine city walls (seige), battering rams to knock down walls, the concept of a corps of engineers, who would help to bridge rivers, as well as other engineering tasks.
The above inventions suggest that the Assyrians were devoted to the art of war. This is also evident in their rapid advance of mathematics and science. They were the first to divide a circle into 360 degrees, and invented the concept of longitude and latitude as it refers to geographical locations. Again, it is easy to see these advancements as results of obssession with war and invasion.
It should also come as no surprise that they developed medicine that eventually influenced doctors as far away is middle Europe (Greece).
There is discussion among academics about the Nimrud Lens – a piece of rock crystal unearthed in 1850 by John Layard. It was discovered in the Nimrud palace (hence the name) in the Northern Iraq region. The debate is over if the lens was used as an ancient telescope, with advocates pointing to the Assyrians advanced understanding of Astronomy.
Like many other ancient societies, the Assyrians made advancements that were primarily based upon their desire to go to war.